The Arduino Rev3 is the latest and genuine model of this fun platform. The Rev3 uses the ATmega328 processor, with a clock frequency of 16 MHz. It has 32 kB of memory and 20 I/O pins that allow the platform to interact with other circuits.
Arduino is an open-source platform that enables you to assemble a dazzling array of electronic devices. Arduino is for creatives, designers, programmers, and anyone else who wants build their own gadget! Devices can function on their own or in conjunction with a computer - it all depends on your vision.
The platform consists of hardware and software components, both of which are extremely adaptable and user friendly. A simplified version of C++ known as Wiring is used for programming. Development can be carried out in the open-source Arduino IDE environment and using arbitrary C/C++ tools. Windows, MacOS X, and Linux operating systems are supported.
To program and communicate with a computer you will need a USB cable. To use the platform on its own you will need a 7.5-12 V power supply.
An Arduino Uno can be powered using a USB connection, batteries, or a conventional power supply. The source is detected automatically.
The platform can function with voltages from 6 to 20 V. However, voltages less than 7 V may interfere with functionality and voltages over 12 V may cause the system to overheat. This is why we recommend a 7-12 V range.
Arduino has the following power contacts:
The platform comes equipped with 32 kB of flash-memory - 2 kB of this memory is reserved for the bootloader, which allows you to flash Arduino from a regular computer via USB. This memory is dedicated to storing the program and associated resources and is not intended to be changed in runtime.
There is 2 kB of SRAM memory. This is the platform’s operational memory and is used to store temporary data such as program variables. SRAM-memory is cleared every time the platform powers down.
Arduino also has 1 kB of EEPROM memory for long-term data storage. It is analogous to a conventional computer's hard drive.
There are 14 pins on the platform for digital input and output. The role each contact plays depends on your program. They all operate with a voltage of 5 V and are rated for currents up to 40 mA. Each contact has a built-in 20-50 kΩ pull-up resistor, which is disabled by default.
Some contacts have additional roles:
In addition to digital I/O pins, the Arduino has 6 analog input pins that each provide a 1024 grade resolution. By default, the value is measured between ground and 5 V. However, it is possible to change the upper limit by applying a voltage of the desired value to a special contact, AREF.
The board also comes with a Reset input pin. Setting it to a logical zero causes the processor to reset. It is analogous to the Reset button of an ordinary computer.
Arduino Uno has several ways to communicate with other Arduino, microcontrollers and ordinary computers. The platform allows you to establish a serial (Serial UART TTL) connection via pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). The ATmega16U2 chip installed on the platform transmits this connection via USB; a virtual COM port becomes available on the computer. The software part of Arduino includes a utility that allows you to exchange messages on this channel.
The RX and TX LEDs built into the board are lit when data is being transferred between the ATmega162U chip and the computer's USB.
A separate library allows you to organize a serial connection using any other contacts, not limited to the standard 0th and 1st.
With the help of expansion boards, it becomes possible to organize other methods of interaction, such as an Ethernet network, a radio channel, or even wireless networks.
Arduino Uno has a fuse that protects your computer's USB ports from overvoltage and short circuits. Although most computers have their own means of protection, the fuse provides additional protection. It breaks the connection if more than 500 mA is fed into the USB port, and will restore it after the situation is normalized.
The size of the board is 6.9 × 5.3 cm (2.72" x 2.09"). Jacks for external power supply and USB protrude a couple of millimeters beyond the indicated boundaries. The board provides space for mounting with screws. The distance between the contacts is 0.1″ (2.54 mm), but in the case of the 7th and 8th contact - the distance is 0.16″.