DC motors are the most affordable and simple type of electric motors. You only need two wires, one for the positive and one for the negative, and the motor will spin. If you reverse the wires the direction of rotation will reverse as well. The only issue is that you can’t connect such a motor directly to an Arduino.
Microcontrollers are not designed to work with a heavy load, the current on the GPIO pins are measured in tens of milliamperes. Even weak engines need at least multiple times more.
If the motor in your project only needs to rotate in one direction, you can use a MOSFET. However, if you need to reverse the motor, you would have to swap the wires; or connect the motor via this H-bridge.
This module is based on Toshiba's semiconductor chip. It is designed to control DC motors and can withstand peaks of up to 3 A. For continuous operation, we recommend using motors rated at 1.2 A.
During acceleration and deceleration, the motors induce a short-term reverse current of large amplitude, which can burn out the contacts on a microcontroller. The module has built in circuitry that prevents this.
Two LEDs are built into the module to indicate the mode of operation. Color informs the user about direction while brightness shows the speed of rotation.
The module is connected to the control electronics with two 3-pin jumper cables.
Terminals "M+" and "M-" are designed to supply power to the motor.
The board provides the ability to choose a power source from an Arduino or from an external source connected to the “P+” and “P-” terminals.
By installing the jumper, you connect the V2 power circuit to the motor power. Only use this optoion if you plan on using a Troyka Slot Shield.